Some of them include the standard ketogenic diet (SKD), cyclical ketogenic diet (CKD), the targeted ketogenic diet (TKD), and high protein ketogenic diet. The standard ketogenic diet is 75 percent fats, 20 percent proteins, and 5 percent carbohydrates. Cyclic ketogenic diet is where more carbohydrates are eaten after a keto cycle, that is, five ketogenic days followed by two higher carbs days.
As the keto diet has extreme levels of fat consumption, there can be certain health issues associated with it. These include fatigue, hunger, low blood sugar levels, headaches, mood swings, etc. A decrease in insulin resistance can cause health issues like inflammation and fat gain. Generally, the diet is safe for healthy people but there can be side effects.
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The targeted ketogenic diet allows carbohydrates during workout times. A high protein ketogenic diet, as the name suggests, includes more protein and is similar to the standard ketogenic diet. In the main, ketogenic diets are effective for moderate weight loss. Initial (rapid) weight loss is undoubtedly due to diuresis as excretion of ketone bodies in the urine (ketonuria) increases renal sodium and hence water loss.
The majority of the diet covers only fat-rich foods. According to the World Health Organisation, a healthy diet should not exceed more than 30 percent of total fat out of the total energy intake for the body. Since there is no concept of whole foods in the diet, there can be deficiencies in micro-nutrients like vitamin C, magnesium, phosphorus, etc. There are different variations to the ketogenic or keto diet.
Of course, since many of these diets are not sustainable in the long term, individuals often gain weight after the dietary intervention. A compromise has been suggested to include 30% fat, 50% carbohydrate (with a low glycemic index), and 20% protein.
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This can manifest as a keto flu that has symptoms like nausea, headaches, constipation, muscle cramps, or even diarrhea. The diet may also cause long term side effects like kidney stones, an increase in uric acid, or osteoporosis (a condition where the bones in your body become weak and brittle). Hence, it is important to have a healthy lifestyle with well-balanced meals. One of the biggest drawbacks of the ketogenic diet is that it is not a well-balanced diet. A healthy diet should include equal portions of fruits and vegetables, legumes, staples foods like rice, and foods from animal sources.
Furthermore, without adequate attention to food quality, any macronutrient-focused eating pattern can have adverse effects. Public health guidelines do not discourage low-fat and plant-based diets, but instead focus on measures to encourage healthful versions of these eating patterns to minimize risk and maximize benefits. With the substantial evidence of benefit as described above, diets that restrict carbohydrate warrant the same consideration.
Furthermore, glycogenolysis, another hallmark of ketogenesis, is associated with water loss (2 g of water released per 1 g of glycogen broken down). The mechanism for later low carb diets weight loss is much harder to explain. While it is true that the reduced insulin secretion found in high-fat diets increases lipolysis, it is unlikely that this would contribute significantly to overall weight loss. The general consensus is that it is the restrictive food selection that promotes weight loss, which, when coupled with the other factors discussed, leads to an overall moderate reduction in weight.